Reading ages…

#15MinForum – 9/03/17

I can’t remember the last time I taught a lesson which didn’t require students to read something at some point. Nor can I remember the last time I spent any real amount of time looking at the text I would be getting students to read (be that on slides or in books) and really considering how individual students in a group might cope with it. There are certainly strategies that I’m sure many of us use in a lesson to introduce keywords and technical vocabulary, or to model the use of language, but how routinely do we look at the texts and the tasks and think explicitly about the impact of our students’ reading ages on their ability to engage meaningfully with these things?

Our latest 15 Minute Forum, led by Andrea Boohig (our Head of Learning Support/ SEND Coordinator), challenged us to think about exactly this…

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Andrea started by sharing some context in terms of how we currently assess students’ reading skills (NFER, Basic Literacy Assessment, Spelling Assessment, Wrat 4, Edinburgh tests etc) and the interventions currently in place to support students (paired reading programmes, small literacy groups, our transition teaching group, one to one support, parental engagement etc). Information about specific students across years 7-13 is made available to staff, and students are regularly retested to establish whether the various interventions are working.

This all sounds like important and impressive work – our Learning Support team is doing great things with vast numbers of students (we have more students with EHCP’s than many special schools do, and then there are those many individuals with needs that aren’t recognised at the same level but which are still of real significance).

But the work of the Learning Support team alone is not enough: it is essential that classroom teachers do their bit…

Hand and book stairs
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Steps to success…

Andrea set about highlighting the characteristics of students with reading ages below 8 years, between 8-10 years, and between 10-14 years, with some specific suggestions for supporting these students. It is well worth a read and some reflection on your current practice. How carefully do you unpack key vocabulary to support students (not just with technical language, but with multisyllabic words)? How often do we assume that because a student has had chance to read something and then write it down, they have taken it in (when in fact the act of copying one letter at a time limits comprehension almost completely)? How often do we recognise behavioural traits as resulting from a students (in)ability to access the text they are expected to work with? There is a lot to think about…Slide4Slide5


Excerpts from Andrea’s presentation can be viewed below:

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Models and Modelling

#15MinForum – 1/12/16

Published earlier this month, this guide from What Works Clearinghouse (@WhatWorksED) on ‘Teaching Secondary Students to Write Effectively’ reminded me of a conversation I’d had with Mike Coll, Subject Leader for History and one of our newly appointed Lead Teachers on the Extended Leadership Team, around ideas to do with modelling.

One of the things that came up in that conversation was a feeling that some of the work we’ve done over the last 18 months in relation to assessment and success criteria may have emphasised the value of ‘using models’ (i.e. pieces of work shared to set a standard of expectation, to unpack success criteria or refine student approaches to self- and peer-assessment), but has perhaps overlooked the value of ‘live modelling’… And so Mike led our most recent 15 Minute Forum on this very theme.

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Mike started by sharing the journey he has had in terms of his own thinking, particularly in relation to the fact that he used to spend a lot of time preparing and providing model answers. He suggested that they are useful in terms of giving an idea of what excellence will look like, but no matter how carefully you might go about using it as an opportunity to tease the detail out of a mark scheme or the success criteria, for many students giving them the model and then saying ‘now get on with it’ can be daunting and unrealistic. And that is where the live modelling comes in…


The purposes of modelling

“Using model answers can show students what they should be achieving – modelling should provide them with the techniques and processes to help them to actually achieve it.”


I particularly like this last one. In the context of wanting our lessons to challenge students and really make them think hard, modelling reality shows them that struggle is normal – it is ok to be stuck! Being stuck should be highlighted and endorsed, and through modelling we can demonstrate strategies for overcoming challenge and getting unstuck.


In much the same way, Mike highlighted that when modelling how to construct an answer in History, he’ll occasionally make mistakes or omissions and then redraft as necessary. Again, this message is an important one – keep tinkering until your work is excellent!

On occasion, this might even go as far as to involve a bit of drama in the classroom. It isn’t acting as such, but really externalising the thought process and making clear to students what you are thinking and doing.


Here are a few of the other strategies that Mike shared in relation to modelling:

  • Collaborative modelling. Ask a student to get it started, and then invite others to contribute the next part or suggest revisions.
  • Comparative modelling. Give a couple of models and get students to evaluate them. In the History setting, Mike identified that this has had an impact on getting students to think carefully about what the question being asked of them, rather than simply writing down all of the stuff they happen to know about a topic referenced in the question!
  • Deconstruction. Give an example paragraph (or get one from a student/group) and then deconstruct it by identifying specific skills. For example in History, underline/highlight in one colour where there is evaluation of extracts, in another colour where these evaluations have been supported with evidence, and in a third colour where the answer demonstrates an awareness of historical context.


The Clearinghouse guide unpacks this idea a bit further, including some example statements that a teacher might use…modelling-example-1-8


For more on modelling, this post over at Class Teaching is well worth a few minutes… it was a source of inspiration for this session!

The day I had a curry with John Hattie…

…and a rundown of some of his latest work.

It turns out, according to the professor born in the South Island of New Zealand, that the All Blacks are in fact not the most successful rugby team in history. No, I was reassured unequivocally that this honour lies with that renowned rugby-playing nation… Malta. One of our other lunch partners, another kiwi, pointed out that this obviously isn’t true, unless it is measured in some unconventional way, or excludes tier one nations, or perhaps isn’t about rugby at all.”Well then you’ve just changed the rules!” came John Hattie’s emphatic reply. “Never argue stats with a statistician!”

Since that shared lunch earlier this month, I’ve looked for the proof. I’ve thrown into google all of the search terms of which I can conceive, and I can’t find a single source to back Hattie’s claim up. With no small amount of irony, I’ve sifted through data, wilfully ignoring the overwhelming body of evidence pointing me in the other direction, trying to find just a single glimmer of quantitative data that I can distort to meet my needs. But I’ve come up empty handed. Nothing. Nada. Maybe, as some of his critics would argue, he genuinely isn’t as good at stats as his disciples would have you believe…

But it has to be said that there is something about his latest work, a model that outlines the science of how we learn and how various learning strategies fit into it, that does seem to make a great deal of sense. As mindful as I am that this sounds like straightforward confirmation bias (‘I like it because it feels right’), if it feels like it makes sense and it fits nicely with a wider body of research and literature, then that makes it worth taking a closer look at…

The start of the day.

The story I heard was that some lucky/clever individual at Waldegrave School (home of the Richmond Teaching School Alliance) had somehow ‘won’ John Hattie and his Visible Learning gang for a day. Either way, by virtue of the growing relationship between the schools in neighbouring Kingston and Richmond boroughs, I was there to enjoy John and his team taking a day out of their world tour (no, really) to do their thing in Twickenham.

Though the enjoyment wasn’t immediate.

The morning started with an introduction from Deb Masters (@DebMasters1), one of John’s collaborators in the Visible Learning team, setting the scene for the day. The first activity was designed to make us describe a learning process as we grappled with a task. The takeaway message was supposed to be that even as educational professionals we often don’t have a particularly broad vocabulary for, or understanding of, the process of learning. (I actually thought my colleague and I had a better crack at it than we were given credit for, but I don’t suppose that really changes the key suggestion that seemed to be about the importance of metacognition and developing a language for learning).

The actual activities used in this warm-up were fairly abstract (think aptitude test/ non-verbal reasoning meets back-of-a-newspaper puzzle). I guess it made a point, but as someone who is occasionally sceptical about extrapolating from really narrow, niche, decontextualised research settings to the real world of a particular classroom in a particular school with a particular group of students, it didn’t do a great deal to quell the slight unease that had been set churning during Deb’s opening comments, peppered as they were with glib references to ‘activating’ research for teachers and ‘activating’ learning in the classroom… hmmm.

And then an eye-opening look at what works and when.

What ensued, over the remainder of the day, was an unpacking, primarily by Hattie himself, of aspects of his most recent paper (coauthored with Gregory Donoghue, available here) and a comprehensive mapping of various learning strategies onto a handy model for learning. The ideas will be largely familiar to those who’ve read his previous publications, as will the methodology (meta-analyses and effect sizes), but the format certainly gave me a real moment of clarity, particularly in relation to the importance of thinking about when any particular strategy is likely to be effective… This is something that hasn’t been so explicitly addressed in previous iterations from the Visible Learning juggernaut.

The other thing that struck me was the clarity with which the work is presented. The INSET materials (at 70+ pages, it’s virtually a book on its own) felt significantly more accessible than any of the other three VL books I own (each of which is worth reading, but page-turners they ain’t). The article isn’t too shabby either (though it lacks the graphics!)

The backbone of the model goes something like this:


Those familiar with the Visible Learning work will no doubt recognise the idea of surface > deep > transfer (think SOLO Taoxonomy), and will also presumably be aware of the context in which Hattie sits this sequence:

“It is critical to note that the claim is not that surface knowledge is necessarily bad and that deep knowledge is essentially good.  Instead, the claim is that it is important to have the right balance: you need to have surface to have deep; and you need to have surface and deep knowledge and understanding in a context or set of domain knowledge. The process of learning is a journey from ideas to understanding to constructing and onwards. It is a journey of learning, unlearning and overlearning. When students can move from ideas to ideas and then relate and elaborate on them we have learning – and when they can regulate or monitor this journey then they are teachers of their own learning. Regulation, or metacognition, refers to knowledge about on’e own cognitive processes (knowledge) and the monitoring of these processes (skilfulness). It is the development of such skillfulness that is an aim of many learning tasks and developing them is a sense of self-regulation.”

(Hattie, 2009, p. 29)

However, the critical feature of this new body of work is that for each stage of learning, the VL team have identified the specific strategies likely to be most effective. It really does appear very handy. And it throws up some interesting conflict with what I perceive as being quite widely held beliefs about ‘what the research says’. The key message? When you take a body of research about a particular strategy ‘en masse’ it presents a very different picture (read ‘effect size’) to when you go through that same body of research and consider at what stage in the learning process the strategy was being used, and then judge its effectiveness at that stage.

  • Using highlighters? Actually quite effective in the acquisition stage for surface learning.
  • Spacing, interleaving, testing? Basically good just for consolidation of surface learning.
  • Elaborative interrogation? Metacognition? Wait for acquisition of deep learning before you wheel them out.
  • Problem-based learning? Inqury learning? All that group-work stuff which gets a bad rep? Actually pretty powerful stuff if you wait until the consolidation of deep learning before you use it.

And this really comes back to trying to understand effect sizes…

On effect sizes.

Hattie started the day with what sounded vaguely like a defence of his use of effect sizes (more on that later) and then made sure his audience were clear that they aren’t to be treated simply as a tick-list of strategies to do. Rather, they should provide a context for thinking about our ‘mindframes’ as educators…

And then he went on…


“All that you need in order to enhance learning is a pulse. Pretty much everything you do as a teacher, works. So don’t ask ‘what works?’, ask ‘what works best for which students and when in the learning process?'”

And, rather topically given recent headlines and the ensuing twitter storm, on the importance of interpreting (rather than just swallowing) effect sizes…

“If some studies have said that homework doesn’t work, it doesn’t mean you get rid of it! It means you improve it!”

And on the importance of continually evaluating our impact on learning…

“Build a coalition around the blue zone [the most positive effect sizes], identify the impact through evidence, then scale it up and invite those in the yellow zone to join you. You have no right to just sit in the yellow zone!

On this he was unequivocal and, say what you will about the value of effect sizes, surely nobody can disagree with the sentiment that all staff have a moral imperative to continually improve and refine what they do. ‘Say what you will’ about the value of effect sizes…


Say what you will.

I tweeted a quote back in August, whilst reading Dylan Wiliam’s ‘Leadership for Teacher Learning‘:

If you’re new to the debate around the use of effect sizes and meta-analyses of this sort, see here (for some defence) and herehere, here or here for some background to the criticism.

So, when you find yourself sitting opposite John Hattie to enjoy an INSET lunch (happy coincidence, rather than design), what is one to do?

First some small talk. As a school with 1-to-1 iPad deployment, I was keen to hear his thoughts on the role of tech in the classroom . We agreed that the focus should be on the learning methodology rather than the technology per se,  following which he offered some insight into research he is currently involved in, looking at the potential of social media in supporting learning. He seemed particularly enthusiastic about the discovery in one particular study that students are apparently asking questions via social media – while in the classroom – that they aren’t asking directly (i.e. the good old fashioned way… with their mouths). It sounds intriguing and, although I’ve not seen the research, the thing I’m most curious about is why these particular students don’t feel they can ask their questions directly… sounds like it could be more about relationships and classroom climate than about technology…

And then I asked him outright…Tactfully, but outright. “You have talked today and written a lot about effect sizes and meta-analyses. On the other hand, your detractors argue that using effect sizes in this way is misleading. What is the average teacher in the middle of it all supposed to think?”

His response, while mopping up the last of his chicken curry with some soggy naan, was delivered with a face that expressed a certain fatigue about the whole thing . “Look, I know Dylan Wiliam has said a whole load of nasty stuff about it in a book… “(I didn’t tell him I’d previously tweeted a quote from said book), “…but it’s a tool. They aren’t perfect, but they are a tool. You don’t stop using a tool just because it isn’t perfect. Dylan Wiliam uses effect sizes himself!”

So, not particularly illuminating and a little touchy perhaps… but, thankfully, it didn’t throw him off his stride for the afternoon session.


What doesn’t work?

#15MinForum – 07/10/16

At this week’s 15 Minute Forum we took a look at the Sutton Trust’s report, ‘What Makes Great Teaching?‘. The report itself is a couple of years old now, but well worth a read if you missed it first time around…


The exciting work that our Learning Communities are doing revolves around developing expertise through cycles of inquiry. In doing so, our teachers are drawing on stimulus material across a range of areas to identify practices which are identified as being particularly effective, then looking at how to adapt and refine these ideas in the context of their own classrooms. Many of the ideas about what works that feature in this report are therefore ideas that are being explored across the school already.

Our message to staff this year about investing in their own professional learning is underpinned by Dylan Wiliam’s mantra, ‘sometimes we have to stop doing good things in order to do even better things’. With this in mind, we used the 15 Minute Forum to take a look at the things that are highlighted as being ineffective – strategies or approaches for which the evidence base is weak, or which are simply regarded as being less efficient or effective than other alternatives.

What are the areas identified as ‘ineffective’?

  • Using praise lavishly.
  • Allowing learners to discover key ideas for themselves.
  • Grouping learners by ability (both in terms of allocating students to different teaching groups and in terms of within-class grouping).
  • Encouraging re-reading and highlighting to memorise key ideas.
  • Trying to address issues of confidence and low aspirations before trying to teach content.
  • Presenting information to learners in their preferred learning style.
  • Ensuring learners are always active, rather than listening passively, if you want them to remember.

Read the report for more! (the ineffective practices start on p22, but the whole article is well worth 10 minutes of your time)

For more research into what works, this post from Professor Rob Coe is a great starting point…


Planning for growth…

Earlier this month I shared a quote with staff, hinting at the direction we are heading with our professional development and learning programme. In their excellent book, Professional Capital (2012), Andy Hargreaves (@HargreavesBC) and Michael Fullan (@MichaelFullan1) state

What is needed is a profession that constantly and collectively builds its knowledge base and corresponding expertise, where practices and their impact are transparently tested, developed circulated and adapted. There needs to be a continuous amalgamation of precision and innovation, as well as inquiry, improvisation and experimentation.


Over the last few months I’ve tried to synthesise their work and that of many others (which I’ve blogged about recently), while also reflecting on the successes and challenges we’ve faced in trying to engage staff with learning projects, which culminated in this week’s ‘Celebration of Inquiry’. Today I shared with staff the fruits of that lengthy process with the launch of the themes for next year’s Learning Communities… and I’m very excited…LC

The work of the Learning Communities will form the backbone of our professional development and learning programme next year. We’ve bought staff some time by committing to the introduction of a fixed professional learning slot where once a half-term, students will have a late start to facilitate the meeting of the Learning Communities (we toyed with making it a fixed weekly arrangement to open up a whole host of other development opportunities, but decided to take one step at a time).

Staff have now been asked to read the blurb for each of the 10 themes and identify which Learning Community they would most like to become part of for the year. Although there is some overlap between some of the themes, the overall scope is intentionally broad in order not only to cater to a wide range of personal development and learning interests, but also to ensure that the work of the Learning Communities supports a range of strategic development priorities (i.e. priorities based on what we see as trends from observations etc, as well as priorities relating to the implemention of new courses with increasing challenge and linear assessment).

Within each Learning Community, staff will be supported with identifying and articulating specific inquiry questions to explore. It is likely that a range of different inquiry questions will be explored within each community, but these questions will nest within the group’s theme, allowing for individual direction but maintaining internal alignment of the community.

The focus of each Learning Community is underpinned by a piece of ‘essential reading’. For some of the communities, this consists of carefully selected articles and online resources (blogs, videos etc), while for other groups it is a carefully selected book. Once staff have indicated which community they would like to join, we buy the books! This key reading will be a stimulus for the professional learning of the group: books (or articles and web links where this constitutes the reading material) will be distributed before the start of our nice long summer for staff to read before the first meeting mid-Septemer! Individuals and groups will then derive specific inquiry questions to develop their own practice based on the learning stimulated by their reading and the discussion that ensues.

Each meeting of the Learning Communities will provide opportunity for each member to share their progress, engage in some new learning/ reflection on the reading or other stimulus, and plan for next steps. These meetings will be supported through the use of twilight INSET opportunities to develop all staff as coaches and as observers, as well as supporting staff with the devleopment of research skills (eg framing inquiry questions and measuring impact through soft or hard data, or using peer observation (which will run to the agenda of the observed teacher) or student observation).

Over the course of the year, the intention is to draw upon the developing expertise within these communities and use it to support staff beyond those communities as well. The work will end in a ‘Celebration of Inquiry’ event – it’ll be like the one we had earlier this week, but on a larger scale… I envisage all staff will be involved in sharing their learning from across the year…

I for one can’t wait!

“Teachers are like gardeners”… and so must our leaders be

As we continue to work on our plans for our professional development learning model for next year, looking to turn the masses of research I blogged about recently into a tangible model that will work for us in our context, I happened to come across this video (via this excellent post on (not) grading lessons by @JohnTomsett):

So what are the conditions for the professional growth of our teachers? How do we, to extend Sir Ken’s (@SirKenRobinson) final comments, ensure that learning is not just something for young people but is something that endures throughout the whole of our lives? What must we, as school leaders, do to ensure that we have a pedagogy for teacher learning that is held in the same regard and with the same level of importance as the learning of our students?

Well, I think it’s hard to dispute Drucker’s much-used quote about the importance of culture, and this is surely the place to start.

IMG_3856We’ve done a lot of work on establishing a culture which is developmental and supportive; which is challenging yet aware of anxiety and stress… The way we approached the start of our journey, the way we have moved ahead with lesson observations/visits, the message we are trying to convey about workload and priorities, the approach to staff development which celebrates expertise within our community and which gets staff working together… These things, are all part of the effort being invested in getting the culture right. This photo of the corner of the notice board in my office shows the quote that I look at every day…

So yes, culture is critical (and there is a lot to write about on this topic alone), but I don’t think anyone would do deny that you also need a strategy!

So what is our strategy for professional growth going to be?

It still reads more like a manifesto than a nailed-down plan of action, but this is what we’ve got so far, out of which is starting to crystalise something more concrete…

  • Our strategy is going to be rooted in long-term collaborative enquiry which develops and shares expertise based on the impact it has on student learning and outcomes. The model for how we do this will be based on the understanding that improving practice involves changing habits, not simply adding more knowledge, and this takes time.
  • To do this, we will create time and opportunity for all staff to be part of a Learning Community which meets at least half-termly. These Learning Communities, which will be loosely themed to allow teachers the choice to coalesce around a particular area of personal interest to them, will explore beliefs and assumptions about learning and teaching, encourage risk-taking and innovation, and support staff to engage in and with evidence and research (their own and from academic research). The structure of the meetings for our Learning Communities will be agreed and fixed so that the structure provides routine and the routine becomes habituated, bringing the learning within the sessions to the fore.
  • Our strategy will include the development of all staff as coaches and as observers, and these skills will be used for peer-observation (driven by the agenda of the teacher being observed, no one else) and reflective questioning to support each other in joint practice development.
  • We will develop the role that student voice plays in the process of the  professional growth of our teachers, drawing on the Learning & Teaching committee that will be part of our new School Parliament.
  • At the end of the year, all staff will share and celebrate their learning from the across the year as part of a Celebration of Inquiry.

On we go with the details…


“Why professional learning rather than professional development?”

It may seem pedantic, but the distinction drawn by Helen Timperley et al in their report Teacher Professional Learning and Development is one that resonates with what we are trying to achieve here…
Over time, the term ‘professional development’ has taken on connotations of delivering some kind of information to teachers in order to influence practice whereas ‘professional learning’ implies an internal process through which individuals create professional knowledge.

CPD, Learning Communities and research…

This year we dabbled with having all staff working in groups on Professional Learning Projects – we’re gearing up to celebrate the impact that these have had at our INSET day later this term. The idea, looking ahead, is to move towards a staff development model brings us closer to long-term, collaborative teacher learning groups: giving staff time and space to work together using an approach that is rooted in enquiry and reflection, informed by research and reading (taking us away from having ‘led’ sessions as the backbone, where an ‘expert’ tells everyone lots of good ideas)…

As part of the review and planning, I’ve invested considerable time in reading and researching what other leading schools are doing, and looking at how this nests within the research and evidence base. As part of that process, I thought I would assemble some of the high-quality literature that has been invaluable for me over the last few months that is informing the exciting plans for 2016-17 (and beyond) to serve as a platform for others…

young business people group have meeting and working in modern b
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A more detailed overview of our model will follow once we’ve pinned down the details (and done some magpie-ing from other schools leading the way!), but here is a sample from a much bigger body of reading that is informing our plans for professional learning…


The (general) research on Professional Development.

The Teacher Development Trust’s (@TeacherDevTrust) Developing Great Teaching is a great starting point for looking at what the research suggests works and what doesn’t.

The Centre for ths Use of Research Evidence in Education (CUREE, @Curee_official) have produced an equally accesible introduction to the research around teacher development in their report, Understanding What Enables High Quality Professional Learning (I particularly like the distinction in thinking about ‘professional development’ and ‘professional learning’). Equally, The Sutton Trust’s (@suttontrust) report on Developing Teachers contains some useful suggestions and insight to get the cogs turning.

I can’t pretend to have read the whole thing, but I keep telling myself that at some point I will work through the full text of Helen Timperley’s ENORMOUS best evidence synthesis on Teacher Professional Learning and Development. However, this summary of Timperley’s work by Mike Bell over at the Evidence Based Teachers Network is an easy starting point (and it is one of the pieces of work reviewed by the TDT and Curee).

Fraser et al’s (2007) review of Teachers continuing professional development has some interesting observations about the relationship between formal/informal opportunities, collaborative endeavour, and a sense of ownership. Their conclusions suggest that:

approaches which are based on collaborative enquiry and that support teachers in reconstructing their own knowledge are most likely to lead to transformative

Which brings us to…


Learning Communities.

Searching for a Niche Group - Magnifying Glass
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The work of Dylan Wiliam (@DylanWiliam), a leading authority on both formative assessment and the model of staff working collaboratively in enquiry groups that he calls ‘Teacher Learning Communities’, has provided much of stimulus for the actual nuts and bolts of our programme for next year. This white paper on Sustaining Formative Assessment with Teacher Learning Communities is a must-read, while this webinar on Five Components of an Effective Teacher Learning Community provides similar ideas in a different format.

Another of the more practical reads comes from the work done in developing the NCSL’s Research and Development Kitbag work. The secondary phase case studies are well worth a read… Likewise, reading the NCSL’s Leading a Research Engaged School has proved helpful, particularly in relation to thinking about where we might look outside of our own school for research expertise (I’ve not read this lot yet, but may do…)

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Although the actual model that we are pursuing leans heavily on Wiliams’ work, the intellectual exercise of looking at the background research is, in my opinion, a worthwhile pursuit in itself. A couple of meaty examples come from work presented by Ray Bolam and colleagues:

…a group of people sharing and critically interrogating their practice in an ongoing, reflective, collaborative, inclusive, learning-oriented, growth-promoting way (Toole and Lewis, 2002); operating as a collective enterprise (King and Newmann, 2001). Summarising the literature, Hord (1997, p1) blended process and anticipated outcomes in defining a ‘professional community of learners’ (Astuto et al, 1993) as one “…in which the teachers in a school and its administrators continuously seek and share learning, and act on their learning. The goal of their actions is to enhance their effectiveness as professionals for the students’ benefit; thus, this arrangement

The key characteristics of such a community seem to boil down to:

  • shared values and vision
  • collective responsibility
  • reflective professional enquiry
  • collaboration
  • group, as well as individual, learning is promoted


More on collaborative professional learning.

Read an introduction to the idea of moving from CPD to JPD (Joint Practice Development) in this National College resource on Power Professional Learning: a school leader’s guide to joint practice development. This paper, from Aileen Kennedy at the University of Strathclyde, also explores perceptions of the idea of collaborative CPD and potential barriers, including a review of pertinent literature.